eCode360® MapLink | Definitions

ABANDONED or ABANDONMENT The cessation of a use of property (land and/or structures) by the landowner for a period of one year, during which the landowner neither occupied, resumed the use or transferred the rights of the property to another person who used the property.
ACCESSORY BUILDING A building subordinate to the principal permitted building which is located on the same lot as the principal permitted building and used for purposes customarily incidental to those of the principal permitted building. The gross floor area of an accessory building shall be less than 25% of the gross first floor area of the principal permitted building.
ACCESSORY USE A use, other than the principal use, of land or of a building or portion thereof, customarily incidental and subordinate to the principal use of the land or building and located on the same lot with such principal use.
ADAPTIVE REUSE The development of a new use for an older building or for a building originally designed for a special or specific purpose which it no longer serves.
ADJOINING LOT Any lot that shares a common boundary with, or that otherwise touches, the lot on which a solar energy system is installed.
ADVERSE IMPACTS Results contributing to a harmful or degraded condition and/or producing harm or degradation. Adverse impacts may include harmful effects on surrounding land uses, such as the diminution of property values or the degradation of historical resources; land use which is contrary to the Comprehensive Plan and the intent of this chapter; effects which may create a threat to the public health, safety and general welfare; and effects on physical and biological resources which will destroy flora and fauna, degrade water and air quality or create excessive soil erosion or flooding.
ALLEY A street which is used primarily for vehicular service access to the rear or side of lots which is 20 feet or less in right-of-way width.
ALTERATION Any change or rearrangement in the supporting members of an existing building, such as bearing walls, columns, beams, girders or interior partitions, as well as any change in doors or windows, or any enlargement to or diminution of a building or structure, whether horizontally or vertically, or the moving of a building or structure from one location to another.
ALTERNATIVE MOUNTING STRUCTURE A man-made tree, clock tower, church steeple, bell tower, utility pole, light standard, identification pylon, flagpole or similar structure designed to support and camouflage or conceal the presence of telecommunications antennas.
ALTERNATIVES Choices between or among two or more plans, layouts, approaches, solutions and/or results.
ANTENNA A structure or device for commercial use utilized to collect or radiate electromagnetic waves, including directional antennas, such as panels, wireless cable and satellite dishes, and omnidirectional antennas, such as whips, but not including satellite earth stations. 
ANTENNA ARRAY An arrangement of antennas and their supporting structure.
ANTENNA, DISH A parabolic or bowl-shaped device that receives and/or transmits signals in a specific directional pattern.
ANTENNA, PANEL An antenna which receives and/or transmits signals in a directional pattern.
ANTENNA, STEALTH A telecommunications antenna that is effectively camouflaged or concealed from view.
ANTENNA, WHIP An omnidirectional dipole antenna of cylindrical shape which is no more than six inches in diameter.
APPLICANT A landowner or developer as hereinafter defined who has filed an application for development, including his heirs, successors and assigns.
APPLICATION Every application, whether tentative, preliminary or final, required to be filed and approved prior to start of construction or development, including but not limited to an application for a building permit, for the approval of a subdivision plat or plan, or for the approval of a development plan and for a zoning permit.
ARCHITECTURALLY INTEGRATED DEVICE A device that is integrated in, as distinguished from merely positioned on, the external surfaces of the shell of buildings or building structures.
BASEMENT A space with less than 1/2 of its floor-to-ceiling height above the average finished grade of the adjoining ground or with a floor-to-ceiling height of less than 7.5 feet.
BENEFICIAL IMPACTS Results contributing to an improvement in condition and/or producing favorable results, such as making a use more compatible with the intent of this chapter and the goals of the Comprehensive Plan, and promoting the public health, safety and general welfare.
BLOCK A tract of land bounded by streets, public parks, railroad rights-of-way, and/or corporate boundary lines of the City.
BOARD The Zoning Hearing Board of the City of Easton, Northampton County, Pennsylvania.
BUFFER An area of required yard space not less in width than designated in this chapter which is landscaped for its full width with plantings such as evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs and/or with fences or walls which are permanently maintained. Buffers shall consist of such enhancements as will create an effective screen of sufficient density to provide a continuous visual buffer and shall be of sufficient height to minimize visibility from abutting properties or districts or from a distinct area of a lot.
BUILDING An enclosed structure or edifice built, erected and framed of component structural parts, designed for the shelter, support or enclosure of persons, animals or property of any kind. (Also, see "structure.").
BUILDING FOOTPRINT The area covered by a building's outermost wall at ground level (see Figure A).
BUILDING HEIGHT (Also see "story.") The vertical distance of a building or structure measured from the lowest elevation of the finished grade of the building to:
(1) The highest point of the roof in the case of a flat roof.
(2) The mean height between eaves and ridge in the case of a pitched roof (see Figure B).
(3) Exclusive of chimneys, mechanical towers, steeples and similar fixtures.
(4) The above shall apply except that, in the case of a sloped site where the slope is greater than 5%, the building height may be measured separately for each forty-foot segment as measured along the primary facade. 

FIGURE B NOTICE: Diagrams are for illustration purposes and are not to be construed as the operative language of the Zoning Ordinance. The obligations are governed only by the written standards set forth in this chapter.

BUILDING SETBACK LINE The line bounding that portion of a lot not contained within the required front, side, and rear yards, and within which the principal building shall be located. For purposes of this chapter, a building setback line along any street, except an alley, shall be considered a build-to line. (See Figure C.) 

FIGURE C NOTICE: Diagrams are for illustration purposes and are not to be construed as the operative language of the Zoning Ordinance. The obligations are governed only by the written standards set forth in this chapter.

BUILD-TO LINE A line located parallel to, and measured from, the property line along the street or streets on which a building fronts, which defines the placement of the building and forms the street wall line (see Figure A). On a corner lot, the build-to line is located on each side of the lot abutting a street.

FIGURE A NOTICE: Diagrams are for illustration purposes and are not to be construed as the operative language of the Zoning Ordinance. The obligations are governed only by the written standards set forth in this chapter.
 

CALIPER The diameter of a tree trunk measured at a point 4-1/2 feet from the ground surface at the center of the base of the tree for all existing trees. For all trees to be planted in accordance with the requirements of this title, the tree trunk shall be measured at a point six inches from the ground surface at the center of the base of the tree.
CERTIFICATE OF USE AND OCCUPANCY A statement based on an inspection by and signed by the Zoning Administrator setting forth that the use or structure conforms with the provisions of this chapter and may be lawfully employed for a specific use.
CERTIFIED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL An architect, engineer, landscape architect, or land planner that, as required, is certified or licensed to practice their respective profession in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and who prepares reports and/or plans which are described in this chapter according to specific requirements set forth herein and/or in the Subdivision and Land Development Ordinance, Chapter 520 of the Code of the City of Easton. The City will consider geologists, wetlands scientists, arborists, and other such experts to be certified design professionals for the purpose of conducting studies and preparing plans and reports respective to their area of expertise.
CITY The City of Easton, Northampton County, Pennsylvania.
CLEAR CUTTING The indiscriminate removal of all trees on a site or portion of a site.
CLEARNESS INDEX (KT) A number from zero to one that describes the amount of solar radiation that passes through the atmosphere. 
COLLEGE or UNIVERSITY An institution of higher education and research authorized by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania that provides associate, undergraduate, or higher degrees.
CO-LOCATION A single telecommunications tower and/or site used by more than one telecommunications service provider.
COMMISSION The Planning Commission of the City of Easton, Northampton County, Pennsylvania.
COMMON OPEN SPACE A parcel or parcels of land or an area of water, or a combination of land and water, within a development site and designed and intended for the use or enjoyment of residents of the development in which it is located, not including streets, off-street parking areas and areas set aside for public facilities.
COMMUNICATIONS ANTENNA Any device used for the transmission or reception of radio, television, wireless telephone, pager, commercial mobile radio service or any other wireless communications signals, including without limitation omnidirectional or whip antennas and directional or panel antennas, owned or operated by any person or entity licensed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to operate such device. This definition shall not include private residence mounted satellite dishes or television antennas or lightning rods or amateur radio equipment including without limitation ham or citizen band radio antennas.
COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT BUILDING An unmanned building or cabinet containing communications equipment required for the operation of communications antennas and covering an area on the ground not greater than 375 square feet.
COMMUNICATIONS FACILITY A group or single communications antenna, communications equipment building, and/or communications tower.
COMMUNICATIONS TOWER A structure other than a building, such as a monopole, self-supporting or guyed tower, designed and used to support communications antennas.
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN The adopted official plan of the City pertaining to the future development of the City of Easton.
CONDOMINIUM A building or group of buildings in which dwelling units, offices or floor area are owned individually and the structure, common areas, and facilities are owned by all the owners on a proportional, undivided basis.
CONTROLLED ACCESS HIGHWAY See "limited access highway."
COUNCIL The Council of the City of Easton, Northampton County, Pennsylvania.
COUNTY Northampton County, Pennsylvania.
DECK An unroofed platform, either freestanding or attached to a building, that is supported by pillars or posts.
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Characteristics related to the distribution, density and vital statistics of populations.
DEVELOPER A landowner, agent of such landowner or tenant with the permission of such landowner, who makes or causes to be made a subdivision of land or a land development.
DEVELOPMENT Any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to buildings or structures, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations, or timber harvesting operations. Land development, as defined within this section, shall be included in this definition.
DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT Any land development that, because of its character, magnitude or location will have substantial effect upon the health, safety or welfare of citizens in more than one municipality.
DRIVE-IN Any use which is designed in such a way that the goods or services offered can be received by the customer while remaining in his/her vehicle.
DUMP A lot or land or part thereof used primarily for disposal by abandonment, dumping, burial, burning, incineration or any other means for whatever purpose, of garbage, offal, sewage, trash, refuse, junk, discarded machinery, vehicles or parts thereof, or waste material of any kind.
DWELLING A room or group of rooms providing complete independent living facilities exclusively for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
DWELLING UNIT Any room or group of rooms located within a building and forming a single, habitable unit with facilities used or intended to be used for living, sleeping, cooking and eating by one or more persons.
EASEMENT A vested or acquired right, either in the public generally or in private entitles of persons, to the use of a parcel of land for a special purpose, including the location of utilities, storm drains or access, which right may include the use of the surface, subsurface and/or the air space over such land.
ECONOMIC AND FISCAL CHARACTERISTICS Characteristics related to the expenditures and revenues in conjunction with the management of income of a household, private business, community, association and/or government.
EIA-222 Electronics Industries Association Standard 222, "Structural Standards for Steel Antenna Towers and Antennas Support Structures".
ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE LAND(S) Any land that contains environmental resources reviewed or regulated under this chapter, including, but not limited to:
(1) Floodplains;
(2) Wetlands;
(3) Wetland buffers;
(4) Steep slopes;
(5) Specimen trees;
(6) Riparian buffers;
(7) Carbonate bedrock; and
(8) Surface waters.
 

FAMILY
(1) A single person occupying a dwelling unit and maintaining a household, including not more than one roomer or lodger; 
(2) Two or more persons related by blood or marriage occupying a dwelling unit, living together and maintaining a common household, including not more than one roomer or lodger; or 
(3) Not more than three unrelated persons occupying a dwelling unit, living together and maintaining a common household. A common household shall be deemed to exist if all members thereof have access to living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation areas of the dwelling unit. 
 

FENESTRATION Windows and other openings on a building facade.
FLOOR AREA The sum of the gross horizontal areas of all of the floors of a building or buildings, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center lines of walls separating two attached buildings:
(1) In particular, floor area includes:
(a) Basement space in residential buildings.
(b) Elevator shafts or stairwells at each floor.
(c) Floor space in penthouses.
(d) Attic space (whether or not a floor has been laid) providing structural headroom of 7.5 feet or more.
(e) Floor space in interior balconies or mezzanines.
(f) Any other floor spaces used for dwelling purposes, no matter where located within a building.
(g) Floor space in accessory buildings.
(h) Any other floor space not specifically excluded.
(2) However, the floor area of a building shall not include:
(a) Basement space in nonresidential buildings, except that basement space used for retailing shall be included for the purpose of calculating requirements for accessory off-street parking and loading.
(b) Elevator or stair bulkheads, accessory water tanks or cooling towers.
(c) Uncovered steps.
(d) Floor space used for mechanical equipment.

FORESTRY The management of forests and timberlands when practiced in accordance with accepted silvicultural principles, through developing, cultivating, harvesting, transporting and selling trees for commercial purposes, which does not involve any land development.
FRONT-LOADED (GARAGE) A garage designed with the garage doors facing the same street as the primary facade(s) of the dwelling to which the garage is attached.
GOVERNING BODY The Council of the City of Easton.
GRADE The degree of the descent of a sloping surface.
GRADE, FINISHED The final elevation of the ground surface after development.
HEIGHT OF A COMMUNICATIONS TOWER The vertical distance measured from the ground level to the highest point on a communications tower, including antennas, hazard lighting and other appurtenances, if any, mounted on the tower.
HISTORIC RESOURCE(S) Sites, areas, structures and districts which are valued due to their significance as examples and/or locations of events, customs, skills, and/or arts of the past as designated by the state, county and/or City.
IDENTIFICATION PYLON A permanent ground-mounted sign consisting solely of a single monolithic structure used to identify a development.
IMPACT The power of an event or condition to produce direct or indirect changes in other conditions. In the context of impact exerted on the environment, changes that affect existing conditions and/or quality of a natural resource are of greatest concern.
IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATION REPORT An assessment in accordance with Article XXXIV, which objectively describes, analyzes and documents the beneficial and adverse impacts of a proposed subdivision and/or land development, and the measures to be undertaken to mitigate adverse impacts.
IMPERVIOUS SURFACE Any material which prevents absorption of stormwater into the ground, including but not limited to buildings, covered decks, patios, driveways, walkways, swimming pools and other similar ground cover.
IMPERVIOUS SURFACE RATIO A percentage of total lot area covered by impervious surfaces.
INFILL The development of new housing or other uses on scattered vacant sites in a built-up area.
JUNK Any scrap, waste, reclaimable material or debris, whether or not stored or used in conjunction with dismantling, processing, salvage, storage, baling, disposal or other use or disposition, including but not limited to vehicles, tires, vehicle parts, equipment, paper, rags, metal, glass, building materials, household appliances, brush, wood and lumber.
JUNKYARD Any area, lot, land, parcel, building or structure or part thereof used for the storage, collection, processing, purchase, sale or abandonment of wastepaper, rags, scrap metal or other scrap or discarded goods, materials, machinery or two or more unregistered, inoperable motor vehicles or other type of junk.
LAND DEVELOPMENT
(1) The improvement of one lot or two or more contiguous lots, tracts or parcels of land for any purpose involving:
(a) A group of two or more residential or nonresidential buildings, whether proposed initially or cumulatively, or a single nonresidential building on a lot or lots regardless of the number of occupants or tenure; or
(b) The division or allocation of land or space, whether initially or cumulatively, between or among two or more existing or prospective occupants by means of or for the purpose of streets, common areas, leaseholds, condominiums, building groups or other features. 
(2) A subdivision of land. 
(3) Provisions for the exclusion of certain land development from the definition of land development only when such land development involves:
(a) The conversion of an existing single-family detached dwelling or single-family semidetached dwelling into not more than three residential units, unless such units are intended to be condominium units;
(b) The addition of an accessory building, including farm buildings, on a lot or lots subordinate to an existing principal building; or
(c) The addition or conversion of buildings or rides within the confines of an enterprise which would be considered an amusement park. For purposes of this section, an ""amusement park"" is defined as a tract or area used principally as a location for permanent amusement structures or rides. This exclusion shall not apply to newly acquired acreage by an amusement park until initial plans for the expanded area have been approved by proper authorities. 

LAND DISTURBANCE A construction or other human activity which disturbs the surface of the land, including, but not limited to, clearing and grubbing, grading, excavations, embankments, road maintenance, building construction and the moving, depositing, stockpiling or storing of soil, rock or earth materials.
LANDOWNER The legal or beneficial owner or owners of land, including the holder of an option or contract to purchase, whether or not such option or contract is subject to any condition. A lessee, if he/she is authorized under the lease to exercise the rights of the landowner, or other persons having a proprietary interest in land shall be deemed to be a landowner for the purpose of this chapter.
LIMITED ACCESS HIGHWAY A highway in respect to which owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no legal right of access except at points and in the manner determined by the authority having jurisdiction over the highway. Within the municipal and jurisdictional limits of the City of Easton, this shall include, but is not necessarily limited to, all portions of US-22 and I-78.
LOT A designated parcel, tract or area of land established by plat, subdivision or otherwise and permitted by law to be used, developed or build upon as a unit. For the purpose of this chapter, a lot is further identified as:
(1) The total of all lands described in a legal deed or record; or
(2) The total of two or more contiguous parcels described in separate legal deeds of record owned by the same person.

LOT AREA The total horizontal area of the lot lying within the lot lines, excluding any existing or designated future street rights-of-way.
LOT LINE A property boundary line of any lot held in single and separate ownership. In the case of any lot abutting a street, the lot line for such portion of the lot as abuts such street shall be deemed to be the same as the street line.
LOT LINE, FRONT The lot line abutting a street and coinciding with the street line. In the case of a corner lot, both lot lines abutting a street shall be deemed the front lot line.
LOT LINE, REAR A lot line opposite and most distant from the front lot line. In a case of an unconventional or odd-shaped lot, the rear lot line shall be deemed to be a line wholly within the lot, 10 feet in length between side lot lines, and parallel to and at the maximum distance from the front lot line.
LOT LINE, SIDE Any lot line that is not a front lot line or rear lot line.
LOT WIDTH The horizontal distance between side lot lines as measured along the build-to line.
LOT, CORNER A lot or parcel of land abutting upon two or more streets at their intersection or on two parts of the same street forming an interior angle of less than 135°.
LOT, ODD SHAPED A lot with an irregular configuration and unconventional number of changes in direction (i.e., a lot that is not generally pie-shaped or rectangular, has small projections or acute angles, or has rear lines not generally parallel to street lines).
LOWEST FLOOR The lowest floor of the lowest fully enclosed area (including basement). An unfinished, flood-resistant partially enclosed area, used solely for parking of vehicles, building access, and incidental storage, in an area other than a basement area is not considered the lowest floor of a building, provided that such space is not designed and built so that the structure is in violation of the applicable nonelevation design requirements of this chapter.
MAJOR LOSS OF EFFICIENCY Twenty-percent loss of efficiency of solar energy system to nonsystem (outward) causes, such as shading of the solar access plane, based on NASA Clearness Index (KT) and NREL, "Typical Meteorological Year," TMY3 data, as well as Tilt and Orientation Factor (TOF) and Total Solar Resource Fraction (TSRF). Reports generated by "Solar Pathfinder™," "Solmetric Suneye™" or other devices that provide functionally equivalent reporting which utilize this data are acceptable. 
MANUFACTURED HOME A structure which complies with local and state building codes and appropriate federal agencies and is certified by said agencies, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when attached to the required utilities. The term includes park trailers, travel trailers, recreational and other similar vehicles which are placed on a site for more than 180 consecutive days.
MITIGATION The act of precluding a potentially adverse impact and/or making a potentially adverse impact less severe through measures that will improve a condition and/or lessen the impact.
MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT A combination of two or more uses located within one building or on a lot and designed as an integrated building or development.
MOBILE HOME A single-family detached dwelling intended for permanent occupancy, contained in one unit, or in two units designed to be joined into one integral unit capable of again being separated for repeated towing, which arrives at a site complete and ready for occupancy except for minor and incidental unpacking and assembly operations, and constructed so it may be used without a permanent foundation.
MOBILE HOME LOT A parcel of land in a mobile home park improved with the necessary utility connections and other appurtenances necessary for the erections thereon of a single mobile home.
MOBILE HOME PARK A parcel or contiguous parcels of land which has been so designated and improved that it contains two or more mobile home lots for the placement thereon of mobile homes.
NONRESIDENTIAL SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM A solar energy system that is an accessory use to lawful nonresidential use in any zoning district and mounted on the principal building on the lot.
OBSTRUCTION Any dam, wall, wharf, embankment, levee, dike, pile, abutment, projection, excavation, channel rectification, bridge conduit, culvert, building, wire, fence, rock, gravel, refuse, fill, structure or matter in, along, across or projecting into any channel, watercourse or regulatory floodway area which may impede, retard or change the direction of the flow of water, either in itself or by catching or collecting debris carried by such water, or that is placed where the flow of water might carry the same downstream to the damage of life or property.
OFFICIAL COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT PLAN See "Comprehensive Plan."
OWNER An individual, firm, association, syndicate, partnership or corporation.
PLAT The map or plan of a subdivision or land development, whether preliminary or final.
PORCH A roofed-over structure projecting from the front, side or rear wall of a building.
PRIMARY FACADE The exterior wall or walls of that portion of a building that faces a street. For purposes of this definition, a wall facing an alley shall not be considered a primary facade.
PRINCIPAL BUILDING A building in which is conducted the principal use of the lot on which it is situated, including all attached buildings such as garages, breezeways, carports, decks and porches.
PRINCIPAL USE The primary or predominant use of any lot. In the case of mixed-use development, there may be more than one use on a lot.
PROJECT A subdivision, land development or any development involving the construction or alteration of buildings or structures or the grading or excavation of land to accommodate a building, structure or use.
PUBLIC Relating to or affecting all people; accessible to or shared by all members of the community.
PUBLIC GROUNDS Includes:
(1) Public open space, parks, playgrounds, trails, paths, and other recreational or public areas;
(2) Sites for community facilities, schools, sewerage treatment, refuse disposal and other publicly owned or operated facilities; and
(3) Publicly owned or operated scenic and historic sites.

PUBLIC NOTICE A notice published once a week for two successive weeks prior to a Zoning Board hearing in a newspaper of general circulation in the City. Such notice shall state the time and place of a public hearing and the particular nature of the matter to be considered at the hearing.
PUBLIC OPEN SPACE A parcel or parcels of land or an area of water, or a combination of land and water, designed and intended for the use and enjoyment of the general public, typically in the form of a park, plaza, playground, playfield, promenade, trail or other similar area.
PUBLIC UTILITY TRANSMISSION TOWER A structure, owned and operated by a public utility electric company regulated by the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, designed and used to support overhead electricity transmission lines.
RESIDENTIAL SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM A solar energy system that is an accessory use to a lawful residential use in any zoning district and mounted on the principal building on the lot.
RIPARIAN BUFFER A riparian buffer is an area typically vegetated with trees and other vegetation adjacent to a watercourse that forms a transition area between the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The riparian buffer is designed to intercept runoff from upland sources for the purpose of mitigating the effects of nutrients, sediment, organic matter, pesticides or other pollutants prior to entry into surface waters. For the purposes of this chapter, the riparian buffer shall be divided into two zones:
(1) Zone One: inner riparian buffer. This zone begins at the top of each stream bank of an identified watercourse and occupies a margin of land with a minimum width of 35 feet measured horizontally on a line perpendicular to the edge of the water at the top of the defined bank, as reviewed and approved by the City Engineer. Where very steep slopes (25% and over) are located anywhere within 35 feet of a watercourse, Zone One shall extend the entire distance of this sloped area, with a maximum width of 75 feet.
(2) Zone Two: outer riparian buffer. This zone begins at the outer edge of Zone One and occupies a maximum width of 40 feet in addition to Zone One.
(a) In cases where Zone One extends beyond 35 feet due to the presence of very steep slopes, Zone Two shall be adjusted so that the total riparian buffer width equals a total width of 75 feet. 

SECONDARY EFFECTS The results of an indirect or nonimmediate influence of one entity or condition on another.
SELECTIVE CUTTING The felling of certain, but not all, trees in an area for the purpose of removing dead, diseased, damaged, mature or marketable timber or for improving the quality of a tree stand. The removal of more than 35% of trees in an area shall be defined as timber harvesting, and the requirements for a timber harvesting operation shall apply.
SETBACK The minimum horizontal distance between the front, rear or side lines of a lot and the respective front, rear or side lines of a building or a projection thereof.
SEVERELY STEEP SLOPE Sloped land that has a ratio of vertical distance to horizontal distance of greater than 35%, based on a two-foot contour interval.
SIGN A sign shall mean and include any permanent or temporary structure or part thereof, or any device attached, painted, or represented directly or indirectly on a structure or other surface that shall display or include any letter, word, insignia, flag, or representation, used as, or which is the nature of, an advertisement, announcement, visual communication, direction, or is designed to attract the eye, or bring the subject to the attention of the public. Flags of any governmental unit or branch of any charitable or religious organizations, interior signs not visible from a public right-of-way or adjoining property, and cornerstones (limited to dates and addresses) built into or attached to a wall of a building are excluded. Defined sign types include: 
DEVELOPMENT SIGN — A type of freestanding sign, designed to identify a development. 
DIGITAL SIGN — An off-premises sign or portion thereof that displays electronic, static images, static graphics or static pictures, with or without text information, comprised of a small number matrix elements using different combinations of light emitting diodes (LEDs), fiber optics, light bulbs or other illumination devices within the display area where the message change sequence is accomplished immediately or by means of fade. Digital signs shall include computer-programmable, microprocessor-controlled electronic displays. 
DIRECTORY SIGN — A type of freestanding or wall sign designed to identify the name and location of multiple occupants on the same lot, commercial or industrial in character, with or without an accompanying map, in order to aid in the internal circulation within the lot. 
FASCIA SIGN — A sign attached to, placed upon, or hung from any structure projecting from and supported by a building, and which extends beyond the facade of the building, such as a canopy, an awning, marquee, etc. 
FREESTANDING SIGN — A sign permanently supported by an upright pole(s), box and/or structure which is permanently anchored into the ground. NAME PLATE SIGN — A sign indicating the name of the occupant of a dwelling. 
OFF-PREMISES SIGN — A freestanding, elevated sign advertising an establishment, merchandise, service or entertainment which is not sold, produced, manufactured, or furnished at the site on which the sign is located (i.e., billboards or outdoor advertising). All off-premises signs shall be considered structures, and a principal use on its associated lot. Artwork, such as a painting or mural that is permanent (lasting the life of the building); original; created specifically for the site; and is not intended to advertise a product, service, business or institution, shall not be considered an off-premises sign. 
ON-PREMISES SIGN — Any sign advertising an establishment, merchandise, service or entertainment which is sold, produced, manufactured, or furnished at the site on which the sign is located. 
PROJECTING SIGN — A sign which is affixed to any building, wall or structure and extends more than 12 inches from the facade or place of the structure. 
TEMPORARY SIGN — A sign which announces an event, meeting, sale, contractor, artisans, patrons, political candidates, etc., constructed in a manner that is nonpermanent, and is displayed for a maximum of one month per calendar year. With the exception of political signs, all temporary signs must relate to activities directly associated with the lot on which the temporary sign is erected. 
WALL SIGN — A sign mounted parallel to the face of a structure or wall and projecting not more than 12 inches from the face or facade of the structure wall. 
WINDOW SIGN — A sign affixed to or within a window such that its message can be seen from the outside.

SLOPED LAND A geographical area, whether natural or man-made, and whether on one or more lots, which has a ratio of vertical distance to horizontal distance of greater than or equal to 12%, based on two-foot contour interval, and measures at least 25 feet in all directions horizontally. (See also "steep slope," "very steep slope" and "severely steep slope.").
SOLAR ACCESS The access of a solar collector to direct sunlight. 
SOLAR ACCESS PLANE The area along a property line beginning a minimum of 12 feet above grade and bounded by the projections from the area of solar energy device perpendicular to the sun's rays between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. on December 21.
SOLAR COLLECTOR A solar photovoltaic cell, panel or array, or solar hot air or water collector device, that relies upon solar radiation as an energy source for the generation of electricity or transfer of stored heat.
SOLAR ENERGY Radiant energy (direct, diffuse, and reflected) received from the sun at wavelengths suitable for conversion into thermal, chemical or electrical energy.
SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM or SES Any device or combination of devices or elements which converts solar energy to usable thermal, mechanical, chemical or electrical energy to meet all or part of a structure's energy requirements, including but not limited to any substance or device which collects sunlight for use in the heating or cooling of a structure or building, the heating or pumping of water, or the generation of electricity. A solar energy system may be used for purposes in addition to the collection of solar energy. These uses include, but are not limited to, serving as a structural member of part of the roof of a building or structure and serving as a window or wall. A solar energy system shall not be the primary use of the property.
STEEP SLOPE Sloped land that has a ratio of vertical distance to horizontal distance of greater than or equal to 12%, but not more than 25%, based on a two-foot contour interval.
STORY That portion of a building included between the surface of any floor and the ceiling or surface of the floor next above it, which ranges from 10 to 15 feet measured vertically.
STREET Includes the rights-of-way and cartways of a street, avenue, boulevard, road, roadway, highway, parkway, lane, alley, and any other ways used or intended to be used by vehicular traffic or pedestrians, whether public or private.
STREET LINES The lines that form the boundary of the street right-of-way as shown on the official City right-of-way map, or as amended and on file in the office of the City Engineer.
STREET WALL The wall formed by buildings or other elements, such as fences, walls, pillars and colonnades, located along a build-to line.
STREET, ARTERIAL A street which is used primarily for large volumes of traffic and includes facilities classified as primary and secondary highways by the State Department of Transportation.
STRUCTURE Any man-made object having an ascertainable stationary location on or in land or water, whether or not affixed to the land.
STRUCTURE Anything built, constructed or erected which requires location on the ground or attachment to something located on the ground.
SUBDIVISION The division or redivision of a lot, tract or parcel of land by any means into two or more lots, tracts, parcels or other divisions of land including changes in existing lot lines for the purpose, whether immediate or future, of lease, transfer of ownership or building or lot development; provided, however that the subdivision by lease of land for agricultural purposes into parcels of more than 10 acres not involving any new street or easement of access or residential dwellings shall be exempted.
SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE Damage from any cause sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 50% or more of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT
(1) Any repair, reconstruction, addition or other improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50% of the market value of the structure before the start of construction of the improvement. This term includes structures which have incurred substantial damage or repetitive loss regardless of the actual repair work performed. 
(2) For the purposes of this definition, ""substantial improvement"" is considered to occur when the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other structural part of the building commences, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the structure. The term does not, however, include any alteration of a structure listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS The transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of audio and/or visual information of the user's choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE The offering of telecommunications for a fee directly to the public or to such classes of users as to be effectively available directly to the public, regardless of the facilities used.
TILT AND ORIENTATION FACTOR or TOF The solar insolation at the actual tilt and orientation divided by the insolation at the optimal fixed tilt and orientation, expressed in percent. Note that for one-axis and two-axis tracking, TOF may be greater than 100%, since insolation may be more than with the fixed panel.
TOP OF BANK A point above the mean water surface of a watercourse which defines the maximum depth of channel flow in the watercourse. It is either determined visually or computed as an elevation using the peak rate of runoff from a two-year storm event.
TOTAL SOLAR RESOURCE FRACTION or TSRF The ratio of insolation available accounting for both shading and the specific tilt and orientation of the surface, divided by the total insolation available assuming no shade and assuming the surface is at the optimal tilt and orientation. TRSF is expressed in percent, according to the following equation: TSRF = Solar Access x TOF. Note that with one-axis and two-axis tracking, TSRF may be greater than 100% because it is compared to a fixed panel.
TOWER, ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION A self-supporting structure in excess of 50 feet (15 meters) in height designed to support high voltage electric lines. This does not include local utility or distribution poles (with or without transformers) designed to provide electric service to individual customers.
TOWER, GUYED Any telecommunications tower supported in whole or in part by cables anchored to the ground.
TOWER, MONOPOLE A self-supporting telecommunications tower which consists of a single vertical pole fixed into the ground and/or attached to a foundation.
TOWER, SELF-SUPPORTING LATTICE A telecommunications tower which consists of an open network of metal braces forming a tower which is usually triangular or square in cross section.
TRADITIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT An area of land developed for a compatible mixture of residential units for various income levels and nonresidential commercial and workplace uses, including some structures that provide for a mix of uses within the same building. Residences, shops, offices, workplaces, public buildings, and parks are interwoven within the neighborhood so that all are within relatively close proximity to each other. Traditional neighborhood development is relatively compact, limited in size and oriented toward pedestrian activity. It has an identifiable center and a discernible edge. The center of the neighborhood is in the form of a public park, commons, plaza, square or prominent intersection of two or more major streets. Generally, there is a hierarchy of streets laid out in a rectilinear or grid pattern of interconnecting streets and blocks that provides multiple routes from origins to destinations and are appropriately designed to serve the needs of pedestrians and vehicles equally.
USE The purpose for which a structure or tract of land may be designed, arranged, intended, maintained or occupied and any activity, occupation, business or operation carried on or intended to be carried on in a structure, building or on a lot.
VERY STEEP SLOPE Sloped land that has a ratio of vertical distance to horizontal distance of greater than 25%, but not more than 35%, based on a two-foot contour.
WETLAND BUFFER The transitional area extending from the outer limit of a wetland for a minimum width of 50 feet.
WETLANDS All lands regulated as wetlands by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection or the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In the event there is a conflict between the definitions of these agencies, the more restrictive definition shall apply.
YARD An open area on a lot extending along a lot line and inward from such line. The minimum dimension of a required yard, as defined for each district, shall measure as the shortest distance between the lot line and a line parallel to such line. (See "building setback line").
YARD (FRONT, REAR, SIDE)
(1) FRONT YARD: The yard nearest the street extending across the full width of the lot between the front lot line and the building setback line. (See ""build-to line."")
(2) REAR YARD: A yard extending the full width of the lot between the rear lot line and the building setback line.
(3) SIDE YARD(S): A yard between the adjacent side lot lines extending from the front yard to the rear yard and the building setback line.  

ZONING ADMINISTRATOR The agent or official charged by law with the administration and enforcement of this chapter.
ZONING CODE The Zoning Ordinance of the City of Easton and amendments thereto enacted under the provision of Act 247 by City Council.
BUILDING HEIGHT
BUILDING SETBACK LINE
BUILD-TO LINE